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3. It should be presumed that maintenance of rock faces will be necessary in quarries where blasting takes place.

4. Failure to manage faces where a Risk Assessment (being an assessment recorded as part of the health and safety document and required by Regulation 7 of The Quarries
Regulations 1999) has identified the need to do so, increases the risks from hazards, which include loose materials falling onto people and plant below. It may also result in an inability to establish a safe stand-off zone at the crest. Where blasting is required, controls must be in place to ensure that a solid, stable face is exposed for the purpose of blast design to prevent associated risks from hazards such as fly rock. Account should also be taken of any changes that could occur in unsupported faces, particularly when revisiting older faces during quarry development.

5. During face operations the workforce may be exposed to falling materials or to overturning plant if the work is not properly planned and the plant properly positioned and protected, for example by the use of Falling Object Protective Structures (FOPS) and Roll-Over Protective Structures (ROPS). Operators should not rely on FOPS cabs when assessing the level of protection necessary to take into account falling rock and should take into account the relevant standards for such protection.

6. There is also the potential of falls from height, most significantly from the crest or rock pad from which an excavator may operate, and risks arising from slips and trips.